The introduction to the medical techniques using ionization radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases will be given. The discussion will start with the historical aspects and the basic principal of the particle interaction with matter.
We will discuss main radiation imaging techniques, which allow to create the visual representations of the interior of a body as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues. The x-ray tomography, scintigraphy, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) will be discussed with more details about the PET technique, one of the most challenging, but also very sensitive one.
The last part of the presentation will be devoted to introduction of the radiation therapy with gamma rays, electrons, proton or light ions as a part of the cancer treatment. Ionizing radiation works by damaging the DNA of cancerous tissue leading to cellular death. To reduce the radiation damage to the healthy tissues, the targeted region is irradiated from the different directions, providing a larger adsorbed dose to the targeted region and limiting the dose in the surrounding, healthy tissue.
Introduction in Medical Physics